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A panoply of disciplines, ranging from epidemiology and biology through to econometrics and physics, routinely make use of these concepts to infer causal relationships. But each of these disciplines has developed its own methods, where causality and probability often seem to have different understandings, and where the mechanisms involved often look very different. This variegated situation raises the question of whether progress in understanding the tools of causal inference in some This variegated situation raises the question of whether progress in understanding the tools of causal inference in some sciences can lead to progress in other sciences, or whether the sciences are really using different concepts.

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Causality and probability are long-established central concepts in the sciences, with a corresponding philosophical literature examining their problems. The philosophical literature examining the concept of mechanism, on the other hand, is more recent and there has been no clear account of how mechanisms relate to causality and probability. If we are to understand causal inference in the sciences, we need to develop some account of the relationship between causality, probability, and mechanism.

This book represents a joint project by philosophers and scientists to tackle this question, and related issues, as they arise in a wide variety of disciplines across the sciences.

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Keywords: causality , causal inference , probability , mechanism , philosophy of science , epistemology , metaphysics. Forgot password? Don't have an account? All Rights Reserved. OSO version 0. University Press Scholarship Online. Sign in.

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  • Publications Pages Publications Pages. Search my Subject Specializations: Select This requirement has been very influential in the past, in the first place as a result of direct observation of causal processes like pushing a cart , in the second place as a problematic aspect of Newton's theory of gravitation attraction of the earth by the sun by means of action at a distance replacing mechanistic proposals like Descartes' vortex theory ; in the third place as an incentive to develop dynamic field theories e.

    The empiricists' aversion to metaphysical explanations like Descartes' vortex theory lends heavy influence against the idea of the importance of causality. Causality has accordingly sometimes been downplayed e. According to Ernst Mach [4] the notion of force in Newton's second law was pleonastic , tautological and superfluous. Indeed, it is possible to consider the Newtonian equations of motion of the gravitational interaction of two bodies,.

    The ordinary situations in which humans singled out some factors in a physical interaction as being prior and therefore supplying the "because" of the interaction were often ones in which humans decided to bring about some state of affairs and directed their energies to producing that state of affairs—a process that took time to establish and left a new state of affairs that persisted beyond the time of activity of the actor.

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    It would be difficult and pointless, however, to explain the motions of binary stars with respect to each other in that way. The possibility of such a time-independent view is at the basis of the deductive-nomological D-N view of scientific explanation, considering an event to be explained if it can be subsumed under a scientific law.

    In the D-N view, a physical state is considered to be explained if, applying the deterministic law, it can be derived from given initial conditions. Such initial conditions could include the momenta and distance from each other of binary stars at any given moment. Such 'explanation by determinism' is sometimes referred to as causal determinism.

    The Geometry of Causality - Space Time

    A disadvantage of the D-N view is that causality and determinism are more or less identified. Thus, in classical physics , it was assumed that all events are caused by earlier ones according to the known laws of nature, culminating in Pierre-Simon Laplace 's claim that if the current state of the world were known with precision, it could be computed for any time in the future or the past see Laplace's demon.

    Confusion of causality and determinism is particularly acute in quantum mechanics , this theory being acausal in the sense that it is unable in many cases to identify the causes of actually observed effects or to predict the effects of identical causes, but arguably deterministic in some interpretations e.

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    In modern physics , the notion of causality had to be clarified. The insights of the theory of special relativity confirmed the assumption of causality, but they made the meaning of the word "simultaneous" observer-dependent.

    This is equivalent to the statement that the cause and its effect are separated by a timelike interval, and the effect belongs to the future of its cause. If a timelike interval separates the two events, this means that a signal could be sent between them at less than the speed of light. On the other hand, if signals could move faster than the speed of light, this would violate causality because it would allow a signal to be sent across spacelike intervals, which means that at least to some inertial observers the signal would travel backward in time.


    The Attribution of Causality

    For this reason, special relativity does not allow communication faster than the speed of light. In the theory of general relativity , the concept of causality is generalized in the most straightforward way: the effect must belong to the future light cone of its cause, even if the spacetime is curved. New subtleties must be taken into account when we investigate causality in quantum mechanics and relativistic quantum field theory in particular.

    In quantum field theory, causality is closely related to the principle of locality. However, the principle of locality is disputed: whether it strictly holds depends on the interpretation of quantum mechanics chosen, especially for experiments involving quantum entanglement that satisfy Bell's Theorem.

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    Despite these subtleties, causality remains an important and valid concept in physical theories. For example, the notion that events can be ordered into causes and effects is necessary to prevent or at least outline causality paradoxes such as the grandfather paradox , which asks what happens if a time-traveler kills his own grandfather before he ever meets the time-traveler's grandmother.

    See also Chronology protection conjecture. Theories in physics like the butterfly effect from chaos theory open up the possibility of a type of distributed parameter systems in causality. A related way to interpret the butterfly effect is to see it as highlighting the difference between the application of the notion of causality in physics and a more general use of causality as represented by Mackie's INUS conditions.

    In classical Newtonian physics, in general, only those conditions are explicitly taken into account, that are both necessary and sufficient. For instance, when a massive sphere is caused to roll down a slope starting from a point of unstable equilibrium , then its velocity is assumed to be caused by the force of gravity accelerating it; the small push that was needed to set it into motion is not explicitly dealt with as a cause. In order to be a physical cause there must be a certain proportionality with the ensuing effect. A distinction is drawn between triggering and causation of the ball's motion.

    By the same token the butterfly can be seen as triggering a tornado, its cause being assumed to be seated in the atmospherical energies already present beforehand, rather than in the movements of a butterfly. This means that it does not assume any pre-existing arena dimensional space , but rather attempts to show how the spacetime fabric itself evolves. The Loops '05 conference, hosted by many loop quantum gravity theorists, included several presentations which discussed CDT in great depth, and revealed it to be a pivotal insight for theorists.

    It has sparked considerable interest as it appears to have a good semi-classical description. At large scales, it re-creates the familiar 4-dimensional spacetime, but it shows spacetime to be 2-d near the Planck scale , and reveals a fractal structure on slices of constant time.

    Using a structure called a simplex , it divides spacetime into tiny triangular sections. A simplex is the generalized form of a triangle , in various dimensions. A 3-simplex is usually called a tetrahedron , and the 4-simplex, which is the basic building block in this theory, is also known as the pentatope, or pentachoron.